Malgudi Day’s

“Swaminathan fled from the place. As soon as Swami went home with the letter, father
remarked : ” I knew you wouldn’t deliver it, you coward.”
” I swear our headmaster is on leave,” Swaminathan began.
Father replied : ” Don’t lie in addition to being a coward. . . .”
Swami held up the envelope and said : ” I will give this to the headmaster as soon as
he is back. . . .”
Father snatched it from his hand, tore it up, and thrust it into the wastepaper basket
under his table. He muttered : ” Don’t come to me for help even if Samuel
throttles you. You deserve your Samuel” (Narayan, Father’s Help, 91).


This ending really stuck out as a powerful and highly satirical if not ironic ending. Swami endured a punishment because he thought that getting a teacher fired endorsed punishment from that teacher but in the end nothing changed and he was punished wrongly again. Perhaps though, reading into it a little, that which scared Swami about being publicly humiliated was now conquered by being punished for nothing and inciting that punishment. Simply put, Swami conquered his fears by inciting them himself.

Barnes/Historical Timeline.


“Then she began to bark also, crawling after him -barking in a fit of laughter, obscene and touching. The dog began to cry, running with her, head-on with her head, as if to circumvent her; soft and slow hi feet went. He ran this way and that, low down in his throat crying, and she grinning and crying with him; crying in short and shorter spaces, moving head to head, until she gave up, lying out her hands beside her, her face turned and weeping; and the dog too gave up then, and lay own, his eyes bloodshot, his head flat along her knees” (Nightwood, 150)

Each book we have read has touched on many themes, brushing over politics, class, race, as well as characters finding and learning things about themselves through various obstacles. It seems as if, in Barnes Nightwoodthe characters Nora and Robin are trapped in their oppressed natures, this being a theme of many books, whether it be books that touch on race, such as Cane and Their Eyes Were Watching God. In Cane similar to Nightwood, we see characters realizing their oppression and having the answer to it, but being over ruled by the actions of others. Such as in Bona and Paul, where Paul tries to tell Bona what he’s figured out but she has already left him behind (Cane, 105-7). In contrast, Nightwood’s characters come together and leave Paris and go back to America, but Robin is still in unrest. Perhaps she feels she has betrayed her community of independents back in Paris. Though, In Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying, the family which tries to bury their mother’s casket, faces many physical obstacles which are mostly direct results of class issues, such as the bridge being out and no other ways to cross, but using their own ingenuity. Many of the challenges Robin and Nora face as well as other characters are mainly mental challenges. Moving to Anand’s Untouchables, we see similar mental struggles with Bakha where he understands what he needs to do, but cannot explain it to self righteous and stubborn people around him and in his government. Again where as instead of changing things man characters in these three books just keep trying to survive and in turn are still oppressed by ignorance around them. Lastly, Hemingway suggestively shows the mental struggle of his characters, as well. But, his solution seems to be death, where death act as a liberator from ignorance; in contrast to Robin’s lashing out of a personality, which results in perceived pseudo insanity.


He turned his hands so as to show them to the sun. He lifted his face to the sun, open-eyed for a moment, then with the pupils of his eyes half closed, half open. And he lifted his chin upright. It was pleasing to him (25).

Mulk Raj Anand, Untouchable (New York: Penguin Books, 1940).

In this action we see and can relate to the sensation the character feels, as the reader. It is a common letting go sensation, a relaxing feeling to give oneself away to the energies around him. Here, through Anand’s diction the reader can almost directly feel the same as the character, giving himself away and embracing life, being in the moment, to a certain extent.

As I Lay Dying

“Down to the barn,” I say. “Harnessing the team.”

Down there fooling with that horse. He will go on through the barn, into the pasture. The horse will not be in sight: he is up there among the pine seedlings, in the cool. Jewel whistles, once and shrill…” (Faulkner, 11).

Seems to be a switch in narration where Darl imagines, yet also narrates Jewel “fooling with that horse”. Perhaps a suggestion,(similar to Woolf and Mrs. Dalloway) of a connection within the minds of characters.

Mrs. Dalloway: Mind Read

“- busy men hurrying home yet instantly bethinking them as it passed of some wife; or presumably how easily it might have been them there, stretched on a shelf with a doctor and a nurse. . . .” (Woolf, 151)

Woolf, Virginia. Mrs. Dalloway. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1925. Print.

This passage highlights the way in which Peter Walsh reflects on other passer by’s thoughts on seeing the ambulance. Possibly a fear of it infects the stream of consciousness.

Paragraph: The passage depicts Peter thinking about what the people on the street, passing by, are thinking when the ambulance passes them. It implies the idea of “putting yourself in others shoes” but Peter seems to be judging as well. It also shows the idea of a fear breaking through the commutative stream of conscious Woolf has set up, assuming the idea of men thinking they have to hurry home to their wives or loved ones to make sure they were not in the ambulance itself. in this sense it acts as a disrupting force in the commutative conscious.

In Our Time

“As the ancient song bubbled up opposite Regent’s Park Tube station still the earth seemed green and flowery; still, though it issued from so rude a mouth, a mere hole in the earth, muddy too, matted with root fibres and tangled grasses, still the old bubbling burbling song, soaking through the knotted roots of infinite ages, and skeletons and treasure, streamed away in rivulets over the pavement and all along the Marylebone Road, and down towards Euston, fertilising, leaving a damp stain.”

Woolf, Virginia 1882-1941. “Mrs. Dalloway.” / Virginia Woolf. N.p., 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 24 Oct. 2016.

Throughout Mrs. Dalloway there is a implicit, imagery ridden, call to nature, descriptions of nature taking back once so lively creations of man, taking them back to a natural death.

Cane: Bona and Paul

“Don’t I, Paul? Her eyes ask.
Her answer is a crash of jazz from the pal-hidden orchestra. Crimson Gardens is a body whose blood flows to a clot upon the dance floor. Art and Helen clot. Soon, Bona and Paul. Paul finds her a little stiff, and his mind, wandering to Helen (silly little kid who wants every highball spoon her hands touch, for a souvenir), supple, perfect little dancer, wishes for the next dance when he and Art will exchange” (Toomer, 105).

Toomer, Jean. Cane. 1923. New York: Liveright,
2011. isbn: 9780871402103.

The diction in, Bona and Paul, seen in this passage, illustrates the way in which Toomer, paints a very impressionistic portrait of such a poetic scene. The diction grants the reader a deeper look into how Toomer’s rigid language in this tale, poetically enhances the story, contorting it with rough angles or in this sense, sentences.

The Protrait

“His soul was swooning into some new world, fantastic, dim, uncertain as under sea, traversed by cloudy shapes and beings. A world, a glimmer or a flower? Glimmering and trembling, trembling and unfolding, a breaking light, an opening flower, it spread in endless succession to itself, breaking in full crimson and unfolding and fading to palest rose, leaf by leaf and wave of light by wave of light, flooding all the heavens with its soft flushes, every flush deeper than the other.”

Joyce, James. “A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.” (2005): n. pag. Planet Ebooks. Web. 1 Oct. 2016. Pg, 213-14. (End of Chapter 4)

Entering the last phase of the hero’s journey, The Return Home. Or in his case the return to a righteous path?

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man

“Was that a sin for Father Arnall to be in a wax or was he allowed to get into a wax when the boys were idle because that made them study better or was he only letting on to be in a wax? It was because he was allowed, because a priest would know what a sin was and would not do it. But if he did it one time by mistake what would he do to go to confession? Perhaps he would go to confession to the minister. And if the minister did it he would go to the rector: and the rector to the provincial: and the provincial to the general of the jesuits. That was called the order: and he had heard his father say that they were all clever men. They could all have become high-up people in the world if they had not become jesuits. And he wondered what Father Arnall and Paddy Barrett would have become and what Mr McGlade and Mr Gleeson would have become if they had not become jesuits. It was hard to think what because you would have to think of them in a different way with different coloured coats and trousers and with beards and moustaches and different kinds of hats”

James Joyce, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Pg-26

perhaps the first critical thinking?

The Beast in the Jungle

“It was really, in its effort against weakness, a generous assurance, and had the success of the impulse not, happily, been great, it would have touched him to pain more than to pleasure.  But the cold charm in her eyes had spread, as she hovered before him, to all the rest of her person, so that it was for the minute almost a recovery of youth.  He couldn’t pity her for that; he could only take her as she showed—as capable even yet of helping him.  It was as if, at the same time, her light might at any instant go out; wherefore he must make the most of it.  There passed before him with intensity the three or four things he wanted most to know; but the question that came of itself to his lips really covered the others.  “Then tell me if I shall consciously suffer.”

She promptly shook her head.  “Never!””

Shows James’s illustrious, pungently infused, realism style, while adding that little spark of fantasy or romance to his diction, as he asserted in “The Art of Fiction” contrary to Wildes, “All fantasy” moral code.