The Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man

“But, O, the road there between the trees was dark! You would be lost in the dark. It made him afraid to think of how it was.”

James Joyce, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), pg. 14

One of the earliest examples of the delay of referent due to the fact that ‘it’ is never clarified.

Heart of Darkness

“Going up that river was like traveling back to the earliest beginnings of the world, when vegetation rioted on the earth and the big trees were kings. An empty stream, a great silence, an impenetrable forest. The air was warm, thick, heavy, sluggish. There was no joy in the brilliance of sunshine. The long stretches of the waterway ran on, deserted, into the gloom of overshadowed distances.”

Conrad describes the environment on the boat in such a dark yet beautiful way it almost makes it seem like a world devoid of happiness, but a good one nonetheless.

Joseph Conrad, “Heart of Darkness”, in Heart of Darkness and Other Tales (New York: Oxford University Press Inc., 2002)